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Problem solving and schemas

In this chapter we watch Orson playing and analyse how all of his development, learning and emotional well being has lead to a point where Orson can independently start to solve problems as he plays and experiments. Maria Robinson explains how he repeats behaviours in different contexts in a schematic way.

Good for looking at

  • Playing & experimenting
  • Object play
  • Schema
  • Piaget
  • Chris Athey
  • Babies
  • Parents
  • Learning through play
00:06
Austen's behavior
00:07
is becoming increasingly purposeful.
00:10
He can keep two ideas in his mind at once
00:12
and he's able to work out to see concept events,
00:14
in order to get what he wonts.
00:17
He wants the dog, but he can't reach it
00:20
and mom isn't getting it for him.
00:29
He deliberately pulls the cloth,
00:30
that the dog is sitting on to achieve his aim.
00:36
We got doggy.
00:40
We got doggy.
00:41
He's solving probLems.
00:45
Austen is learning and making connection all the time.
00:49
As we've already seen, babies often use repeated behaviors.
00:54
What Piaget called schemers.
00:59
Chris Athy followed up this idea
01:01
and applied it to the way
01:02
young children experiment and play.
01:06
Children will focus on a particular theme of actions,
01:08
which are repeated in many ways in the world around them.
01:12
Austen has become fascinated
01:14
with the schemer of transferring.
01:16
He's transferring the cotton reals
01:18
in and out of different containers.
01:21
He's totally absorbed and working hard.
01:26
They go back in.
01:34
Later, he's put himself in the box.
01:38
Then he transfers a smaller box in and out.
01:41
Oh are you gonna get in?
01:43
Well done!
01:50
You do it again.
01:54
Outside in the sandpit,
01:56
he transfers the sand into different cups.
02:00
So, schemers seem to be a repeated pattern of behaviors,
02:04
in order to help the child learn a new concept.
02:07
They begin to get the idea of consistency across context.
02:12
They start to understand that something happens here
02:15
and ah, it's the same if it happens over there.
02:19
Austen is learning through playing,
02:21
where the central process is comparison.
02:25
This is the same, this is different,
02:27
this is inside, this is outside.
02:31
This constant process of comparison,
02:33
seems to be what underpins
02:35
the development of cognitive schemers.
02:47
During these last few months,
02:49
Austen's internal and external world
02:51
has become much more complex.
02:54
All of his development come together
02:56
in a rather evolutionary way.
02:59
He knows know that objects always exist.
03:01
And has been learning about their properties,
03:03
through repeated experimentation and play.
03:08
He's been learning about his close family
03:09
from their faces, emotional reactions and behavior.
03:13
His brain has been soaking up information,
03:16
sorting and categorizing all of his experiences,
03:19
helping him to anticipate what's going to happen next.
03:23
He's linking feelings with behavior
03:26
and the emerging realization,
03:27
that interest can be shared with others,
03:29
leads to the beginnings of an awareness,
03:32
that there is a me and a you.
03:35
Because he now knows
03:37
who's familiar and can be trusted.
03:41
He's become wary of strangers.
03:44
This happens at the same time as he's become mobile,
03:45
leading to new exploration
03:49
and new or maybe dangerous situations.
03:51
During these times, he knows he can look
03:55
to his attachment figures for cues on how to react.
03:58
This trust in his attachment figures,
04:00
means he's able to explore further
04:04
and taking new experiences with confidence.
04:06
We need our carers desperately,
04:15
in order to learn about ourselves and our world.
04:17
We talk about the individual needs
04:20
of every child, which is absolutely true.
04:22
There is still a remarkable similarity
04:26
between the experiences and the development,
04:27
that we see in each every child,
04:31
that every child seems to display it round about
04:33
similar times, so, it does seem
04:35
as if we have this kind of sequence of development,
04:39
which starts off absolutely with babies
04:42
getting to know about that world outside the womb.
04:44
Getting to know their carers,
04:48
getting to know that first primary relationships
04:49
and then they begin to know
04:51
more about the world around them.
04:53
So, simply reaching out and exploring
04:58
and then you begin to see that he was able to be
04:59
much more sophisticated
05:02
in how he communicates with his carers,
05:04
but it's almost as if we need to get
05:09
that first bit established about our needs are met first,
05:13
before we can actually move on.
05:21
Would you like to meet Timo today?
05:23
The good one.
05:26
You want more peppers?
05:27
Would you like--
05:42
He's gonna be a politician.

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